On this day December 17, 1862

General Ulysses S. Grant issued General Order No. 11, expelling Jews from Tennessee, Mississippi, and Kentucky,issued on December 17, 1862, during the American Civil War.ulysses_grant_1870-1880

It became notorious for its instruction for the expulsion of all Jews in his military district comprising areas of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Kentucky.

The order was issued as part of a campaign against a black market in Southern cotton, which Grant was convinced was being run “mostly by Jews and other unprincipled traders.”

Following protests from Jewish community leaders and an outcry by members of Congress and the press, it was revoked a few weeks later by order of President Abraham Lincoln. Grant later claimed it had been drafted by a subordinate and that he had signed it without reading.


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