On this day December 31, 1963
The Central African Federation officially collapsed, eventually to become Zambia, Malawi and Rhodesia.
The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, also known as Central African Federation, was a semi-independent state in southern Africa that existed from 1953 to the end of 1963, comprising the former Self-Governing (since 1923) Colony of Southern Rhodesia and the British protectorates of Northern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland.
It was a federal realm of the British Crown — not a colony, and not a dominion although the British Sovereign was represented by a Governor-General, as usual for dominions. It was intended to eventually become a dominion in the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Federation was established on August 1, 1953, with the goal of creating a middle way between the newly independent and socialist black independent states and the white-dominated governments of South Africa, Angola, and Mozambique.
It was intended to be a perpetual entity, but ultimately crumbled because the black African nationalists wanted a greater share of power than the dominant minority white population was willing to concede.
Newly independent black African states were united in wanting to end all forms of colonialism in Africa. With most of the world moving away from colonialism during this time (late 1950s – early 1960s), the United Kingdom (UK) was subjected to much pressure from the United Nations and the Organization of African Unity, which supported the aspirations of the black African nationalists.
The Federation officially ended on 31 December 1963, when Northern Rhodesia gained independence from the UK as the new nation of Zambia and Nyasaland gained independence as the new nation of Malawi. Southern Rhodesia became known as Rhodesia and is now Zimbabwe.