On this day March 13, 1921

Mongolia was proclaimed an independent monarchy, under Ungern von Sternberg as a dictator.

Baron Roman Ungern von Sternberg

Roman Ungern von Sternberg

A mystic who was fascinated by beliefs and religions of the Far East such as Buddhism and who believed himself to be a reincarnation of Genghis Khan.

Ungern von Sternberg’s philosophy was an exceptionally muddled mixture of Russian nationalism with Chinese and Mongol beliefs.

His brief rule of Mongolia was characterised by looting and a reign of terror by his army.

An independent and brutal warlord in pursuit of pan-monarchist goals in Mongolia and territories east of Lake Baikal during the Russian Civil War that followed the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917.

His goals included restoring the Russian monarchy under Michael Alexandrovich Romanov and the Mongolian Khanate under Bogd Khan, and his victims were mainly Communists and Jews.

Following his defeat by the Red Army, he was tried and executed for his numerous crimes.

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