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On this day July 28, 1821

José de San Martín declares the independence of Peru from Spain.

In 1817, he crossed the Andes from Mendoza to Chile, and prevailed over the Spanish forces after the Battle of Chacabuco and Battle of Maipú (1818), liberating Chile. San Martín seized partial control of the viceroyalty’s capital (Lima) on July 12, 1821 and was appointed Protector of Perú.

Peruvian independence was officially declared on July 28, 1821. After a closed-door meeting with fellow libertador Simón Bolívar at Guayaquil, Ecuador on 22 July 1822, Bolívar took over the task of fully liberating Peru. San Martín unexpectedly left Perú and resigned the command of his army, excluding himself from politics and the military, and moved to France in 1824. The details of the 22 July meeting would be a subject of debate by later historians. Read More…

On this day June 20, 1973

Snipers fired into a crowd of Peronists near the Ezeiza Airport in Buenos Aires, killing at least 13 people and injuring 365 others.ezeiza

The massacre took place on June 20, 1973 near the Ezeiza International Airport in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Peronist masses, including many young people, had gathered there to acclaim Juan Perón’s definitive return from an 18-year exile in Spain.

The police counted three and a half million people. In his plane, Perón was accompanied by El Tío (“Uncle”) president Héctor Cámpora, representantive of the Peronists’ left wing, who had come to power on May 25, 1973, amid popular euphoria and a period of political turmoil. Héctor Cámpora was opposed to the Peronist right wing, declaring during his first speech that “the spilled blood will not be negotiated”. Read More…

Social apartheid in São Paulo, Brazil

The residential building to the right is located at the rich neighborhood of Morumbi. The precarious habitations to the left are part of Paraisópolis, one of the largest slums in the city.

Brazil ranks 49.3 in the Gini coefficient index, with the richest 10% of Brazilians receiving 42.7% of the nation’s income, while the poorest 10% receive less than 1.2%.

On this day May 26, 1966

British Guiana gains independence from the United Kingdom on this day and became a republic on 23 February 1970, remaining a member of the Commonwealth.

The United States State Department and the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), along with the British government, played a strong role in influencing who would politically control Guyana during this time. They provided secret financial support and political campaign advice to Guyanese of African descent, especially Forbes Burnham’s People’s National Congress to the detriment of the Cheddi Jagan-led People’s Progressive Party, mostly supported by Guyanese of Indian descent.

In 1978, Guyana received considerable international attention when 918 almost entirely American members of the Jim Jones-led Peoples Temple died in Jonestown — a settlement created by the Peoples Temple. An attack by Jim Jones’ body guards at a small remote airstrip close to Jonestown resulted in the murder of five people, including Leo Ryan, the only Congressman murdered in the line of duty in US history.

6.5 magnitude earthquake hits Acre, Brazil

A 6.5 magnitude earthquake occurred in Acre, a Brazilian state, at 16:18:29 UTC (11:18 local time), United States Geological Survey (USGS) reported. It had a depth of 565.3 kilometers.

Brazil earthquake shakemap

The epicenter was located 125 kilometers east-southeast of Cruzeiro do Sul, Brazil, 330 kilometers east of Pucallpa, Peru, 460 kilometers south-southwest of Tabatinga, Brazil, and 2700 kilometers west-northwest of Brasilia, Brazil.

A civil defence service spokesman in Cruziero do Sul reported to Times Live that the quake was unnoticed. “This zone suffers a lot of earthquakes, but the last one we really felt was 20 days ago. We didn’t register any disorder or damage on the surface,” he said.

“Generally speaking, quakes more than 500 kilometres deep don’t leave signals in the surface, they are only detected by instruments,” said an official of Brazil’s Seismological Observatory to AFP.

Brazil lead nuclear compromise with Iran

Iran, Turkey, and Brazil emerged with an agreement yesterday from talks regarding Iran’s nuclear program.

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at UN

The eighteen-hour discussion in Tehran yesterday included Brazilian president Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, who acted as a neutral broker in the deal.

Lula da Silva also visited Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, the supreme leader of Iran, although only Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was actively involved in the talks.

Prior to the meeting, many had thought the chance of an agreement slim. Iran, however, seemed to be open to new ideas. Iranian atomic director Ali Akbar Salehi said Saturday that “things are moving along positively” in regard to such proposals. Iran had originally refused to trade its uranium, but seemed to indicate last week that it had changed its mind. Read More…

Another earthquake hit Chile

On late Monday, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has reported another earthquake at 19:09:43 local time (23:09:43 UTC).

Image: USGS

The epicenter was located 110 kilometers northwest of Temuco; 132 kilometers southwest of Concepción; 203 kilometers north of Valdivia and 558 kilometers southwest of Santiago.

The USGS later determined that the earthquake had a depth of 20.6 kilometers, and the epicenter was located 55 kilometers to the south of Lebu.

The University of Chile Geological Survey reported that the earthquake took place 71 kilometers at the west of Tirúa in the Bío Bío Region and had a depth of 22.9 kilometers.

Wikinews’ Diego Grez reported that the earthquake was clearly felt in Pichilemu, almost 300 kilometers to the north of the epicenter. ONEMI reported no casualties.

Chile revives fears of earthquake

Another strong aftershock hit Chile early Sunday morning. The aftershock reached a magnitude of 5.9 with the epicenter located 19 kilometers west of Pichilemu, according to the University of Chile Geological Survey (UCGS).

The UCGS has also reported that the quake reached a depth of 30.1 kilometers and that the intensities in the Mercalli scale were: Pichilemu, Navidad and Talca: VI; Rancagua, Santa Cruz, Lolol and San Fernando: V; Casablanca, San Antonio and Santo Domingo: IV; La Calera, La Ligua, Limache, Los Andes, Papudo, Petorca, Quillota, Santiago de Chile, Valparaíso and Viña del Mar: III.

However, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) reported that it reached a magnitude of 5.8; had a depth of 8,5 kilometers; and that the epicenter was located 65 kilometers at the southwest of San Antonio, Valparaíso; 100 kilometers at the west of Rancagua, O’Higgins 105 kilometers at the northwest of Curicó, Maule and; 135 kilometers at the southwest of Santiago, Metropolitan Region.

ONEMI (National Emergencies Office), reported that Talca, located 258 kilometers south of Santiago, was the city where the aftershock was felt the strongest. Pablo Marín of ONEMI told TV Chile no casualties were reported and only some telephone lines had collapsed.