In 1817, he crossed the Andes from Mendoza to Chile, and prevailed over the Spanish forces after the Battle of Chacabuco and Battle of Maipú (1818), liberating Chile. San Martín seized partial control of the viceroyalty’s capital (Lima) on July 12, 1821 and was appointed Protector of Perú.
Peruvian independence was officially declared on July 28, 1821. After a closed-door meeting with fellow libertador Simón Bolívar at Guayaquil, Ecuador on 22 July 1822, Bolívar took over the task of fully liberating Peru. San Martín unexpectedly left Perú and resigned the command of his army, excluding himself from politics and the military, and moved to France in 1824. The details of the 22 July meeting would be a subject of debate by later historians. Read More…
An army of over 5,400 soldiers led by General José de San Martín crossed the Andes from Argentina to liberate Chile and then Peru from Spanish rule.
The Crossing of the Andes was one of the most important feats in the Argentine and Chilean wars of independence, in which a combined army of Argentine soldiers and Chilean exiles liberated Chile from Spanish rule, in order to protect their country from possible Spanish incursions.
Setting out in 1817, from Mendoza, Argentina, the goal of the crossing of the Andes, was to enter Chile and attack the Royalist forces (Spanish) by surprise. The ultimate goal was the liberation of Chile from Spanish rule with Argentine forces. Led by Jose de San Martin, the crossing took twenty-one days.
Conquistador Francisco Pizarro founded Ciudad de los Reyes, present-day Lima, Peru, as the capital of the lands he conquered for the Spanish Crown.
The history of Lima, the capital of Peru, began with its foundation by Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535.
The city was established on the valley of the Rímac River in an area populated by the Ychsma polity. It became the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543. Read More…
From April to July 2009, unusually cold weather resulted in the deaths of more than 250 children under the age of five. In June, there were 50,000 suffering from acute respiratory infections, and 4,851 with pneumonia. Between mid April and mid June, 61 children perished.
The United Nations Population Fund reported over 13,500 cases of pneumonia, and more than 60,000 cases of respiratory infections. The Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) is distributing blankets and warm clothing.
The unusual winter began 12 weeks earlier than usual. More than 80 of the deaths occurred in Puno, Peru, one of the larger cities of the Altiplano lying in the central Andes. The children suffering from malnourishment are the population at greatest risk in an impoverished southern area of Peru lacking health care facilities. Read More…
President Alan García named Ángel Javier Velásquez Quesquén as prime minister during the controversy surrounding indigenous clashes with the government when 34 people died.
He was sworn-in at 8:00 pm on 12 July 2009. The appointment of Velásquez, considered a party loyalist, was seen by pundits as an attempt by García to tighten his grip on power for his final term. It is considered a reversal after appointing the leftist Yehude SimonVelásquez’s predecessor.
Velásquez is the third person to hold the office in nine months. Garcia, whose approval rating was 21 percent, also replaced the ministers of defense, justice, agriculture and the interior. Velásquez is considered a governing party insider and served in Congress for 14 years.
According to the defence minister of Peru, Flores Araoz, Shining Path rebels have killed thirteen soldiers in two ambushes in the southeast region of the country. The attacks were the deadliest by guerrillas in the past ten years.
The minister stated that rebels attacked a military patrol with explosives, killing eleven soldiers and a captain.
Both attacks occurred 340 miles (547 km) from Peru’s capital of Lima, in the Ayacucho region. Two other soldiers have been injured, and one is missing.
“The attack with dynamite and grenades took place Thursday, and victims included a captain, a junior officer and 11 soldiers,” Araoz said, adding that “most of the soldiers plunged over a cliff.”
The minister said the attacks had happened on Thursday, but news was delayed for some time due to poor communications in the region. Read More…
Slumping economies in the United States, Spain and Japan are causing reverberations in the countries of Latin America as migrant workers send less money home.
The Inter-American Development Bank reported that for the first time since they began tracking remittances in 2000, remittances to Latin America declined in the fourth quarter of 2008, dropping 2% relative to the fourth quarter of 2007.
In January, remittances declined further, with Colombia experiencing a 16% drop relative to 2008, Brazil suffering a 14% decline, Mexico 12%, and Guatemala and El Salvador each falling 8%.
These numbers come as 2008 saw an average 10% increase in remittances. Nearly US$70 billion was sent back to families in those areas in 2008. Read More…