Tag Archive | Coup d’état

On this day September 30, 1965

On the night of 30 September six senior army generals were kidnapped and executed in Jakarta by a battalion of soldiers from the Presidential Guard.Backed by elements of the armed forces, the insurgents occupied Merdeka Square including the areas in front of the Presidential Palace, the national radio station, and telecommunications centre.

Suharto

Suharto

At 7:10 a.m. a Lieutenant-Colonel Untung announced on radio that the “30 September Movement” had forestalled a coup by “power-mad generals”, and that it was “an internal army affair”.

Apart from Armed Forces Chief of Staff, General Abdul Harris Nasution—who was targeted but escaped assassination and in was in hiding—Suharto was the most senior general not removed by the 30 September group.

Suharto had been in hospital that evening with his three-year old son Tommy who had a scalding injury. It was here that he spoke to Colonel Abdul Latief, the only key person in the ensuing events with whom he spoke that evening. Read More…

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On this day September 28, 1973

ITT’s headquarters in New York City, New York, was bombed by protesters for alleged involvement in the overthrow of the democratically elected and emerging socialist government in Chile.

In 1970 ITT owned of 70% of Chitelco, the Chilean Telephone Company, and funded El Mercurio, a Chilean right-wing newspaper. Declassified documents released by the CIA in 2000 suggest that ITT financially helped opponents of Salvador Allende’s government prepare a military coup.

After Allende received 36.3% of popular vote in a three way tie and was chosen by the Chilean congress as president, Edwards proceeded to consult the U.S. ambassador to Chile and asked if the U.S. would “do anything militarily, directly or indirectly?”(Kinzer 170). Read More…

On this day July 14, 1958

In a coup d’état, alternatively known as the 14th July Revolution, military overthrow Iraqi Hashemite monarchy under Faisal II and the regime of Prime Minister Nuri al-Said.

The dispatching of Iraqi army units to Jordan played into the hands of two of the key members of the Iraqi Free Officers movement: Colonel Abdul Salam Arif and the movement’s leader, Brigadier General Abdul Karim Qasim.

The Iraqi 19th and 20th Brigades (the former under the command of Qasim and the latter featuring Arif’s battalion) were dispatched to march to Jordan, along a route that passed Baghdad. The opportunity for a coup was thus presented to, and seized upon, by the conspirators. Read More…

On this day June 30, 1934

The Night of the Long Knives, Adolf Hitler’s violent purge of his political rivals in Germany, takes place when the Nazi regime carried out a series of political executions, most of those killed being members of the Sturmabteilung (SA), the paramilitary Brownshirts.

Ernst Röhm

Ernst Röhm

Adolf Hitler moved against the SA and its leader, Ernst Röhm, because he saw the independence of the SA and the penchant of its members for street violence as a direct threat to his power.

Hitler also wanted to conciliate leaders of the Reichswehr, the official German military.

They both feared and despised the SA and in particular feared Röhm’s ambition to absorb the Reichswehr into the SA under his own leadership.

Finally, Hitler used the purge to attack or eliminate critics of his regime, especially those loyal to Vice-Chancellor Franz von Papen, and to settle scores with old enemies. Read More…

On this day May 27, 1960

In Turkey, a military coup removes President Celal Bayar along with Adnan Menderes and some other government and party members to a military court on the tiny island Yassiada in the Sea of Marmara on June 10 of the same year.

Mahmut Celal Bayar

Mahmut Celal Bayar

He and 15 other party members were tried for violating the constitution and sentenced to death by the High Court of Justice on September 15, 1961.

The ruling military committee approved the death sentence for Menderes, Zorlu and Polatkan, but the punishment for Bayar and other 12 party members was commuted to life imprisonment. Bayar was sent to jail in Kayseri, but he was released on November 7, 1964 due to ill health.

Bayar was pardoned in 1966. Full political rights were restored to him in 1974, but he declined an invitation to become a life member of the Senate, on the grounds that one can represent the people only if elected. Read More…

On this day April 23, 1960

Dressed in his 1940s-vintage general’s uniform, President Charles de Gaulle delivered a televised speech calling on the military personnel and civilians of France to oppose the Algiers putsch, a coup d’état attempt against him in the metropole or in Algeria.

1942 Charles de Gaulle

“An insurrectionary power has established itself in Algeria by a military pronunciamento… This power has an appearance: a quartet of retired generals (un quarteron de généraux en retraite).

It has a reality: a group of officers, partisan, ambitious and fanatic. This group and this quartet possess an expeditive and limited savoir faire.

But they see and understand the Nation and the world only deformed through their frenzy.

Their enterprise lead directly towards a national disaster … I forbid any Frenchman, and, first of all, any soldier, to execute any single one of their orders…. Read More…

Turkish military officers charged over coup plot

A Turkish court on Wednesday charged and jailed seven senior Turkish military officers for allegedly plotting several years ago to overthrow the Turkish government.

The officers consist of four admirals, an army general, and two staff colonels. Among them were Admiral Ramazan Cem Gundeniz, Admiral Aziz Cakmak, retired General Mehmet Kaya Varol, retired Admiral Ali Deniz Kutluk, and retired Admiral Ozer Karabulut. Also arrested were retired General İbrahim Fırtına, who was Commander of the Air Force from 2003 until his retirement in 2005, and retired Admiral Ozden Ornek, Commander of the Navy, also from 2003 to 2005. The court released six other officers. Read More…